Alcohol is the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and liver-related deaths. Results of a large long-term study in Sweden have confirmed that drinking during late adolescence could be the first step towards liver problems in adulthood and that guidelines for safe alcohol intake in men might have to be revised downwards.
Physicists have developed a frequency-doubling unit for transportable, optical atomic clock that will even continue to operate when it has been shaken at three times the Earth's gravitational acceleration.
In an effort to reduce patient misdiagnoses and associated poor patient outcomes from lack of prompt treatment, researchers are providing hospitals a new approach to quantify and monitor diagnostic errors in their quality improvement efforts.
A scientifically based approach that includes a tooth-decay risk assessment, aggressive preventive measures and conservative restorations can dramatically reduce decay in community dental practices, according to a new study.
Researchers have long wondered how our cells navigate inside the body. Two new studies have now demonstrated that the cells use molecular force from within to steer themselves in a certain direction. This knowledge may be of great significance in the development of new drugs.
In the analysis of the human genome, one question researchers have so far left unanswered is how to differentiate the variants of a gene inherited from the mother and father. Such information would increase the likelihood of treating certain diseases successfully. The so-called third generation of sequencing technologies is now making this possible.
Researchers from Spain have created a computer model based on neural networks which provides in which Spanish provinces cases of corruption can appear with greater probability, as well as the conditions that favor their appearance. This alert system confirms that the probabilities increase when the same party stays in government more years.
A new study highlights a novel long-acting medicine for the prevention of malaria. The approach uses nanotechnology to improve the delivery of an existing antimalarial drug via a novel injectable format that can maintain blood concentration of the drug for weeks or months following a single dose.
Extremely fine porous structures with tiny holes -- resembling a kind of sponge at nano level -- can be generated in semiconductors. This opens up new possibilities for the realization of tiny sensors or unusual optical and electronic components.
Plant researchers have tested newly developed wheat lines with improved resistance in field trials. They have demonstrated that a combination of two variations of a resistance gene provides wheat with better protection against the fungal disease.
Researchers have discovered an unknown biological process that controls the production of vital cells that carry oxygen throughout the body. The discovery could help doctors develop new treatments for anemias that affect millions of people.
Researchers have, for the first time, used a material's persistent photoconductivity to stimulate neurotype cells. The technique, which is relatively simple, should facilitate future research on using charge to influence cellular behavior.
One of the biggest mysteries in astroparticle physics has been the origins of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, very high-energy neutrinos, and high-energy gamma rays. Now, a new theoretical model reveals that they all could be shot out into space after cosmic rays are accelerated by powerful jets from supermassive black holes. The model may set a new milestone on the path toward solving the half-century-old enigma of the origin of the highest-energy particles in the universe.
When families don't have stable housing, their risk of struggling with poor health outcomes and material hardships, such as food insecurity, increases, according to a new study. Researchers surveyed over 22,000 families and found that one third of low-income renters were housing unstable, which was associated with negative impacts on their health.
By identifying why skin immunity declines in old age, a research team has found that an anti-inflammatory pill could help make vaccines more effective for elderly people. The study found that an excessive inflammation reaction in older people can obstruct the immune system.
Conducting HIV testing among the social and risk networks of those recently diagnosed with HIV helps identify undiagnosed cases of HIV at significantly higher rates and at a lower cost than other testing approaches, finds a new study conducted in Ukraine by an international research team.
Invasive species have diverse impacts in different locations, including biodiversity loss, as a result of native species being outcompeted for similar resources. A US research team studied the case of an aggressive Eurasian woodwasp that has recently established in North America and poses a threat to a native competitor species.
The biogenesis of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and Gram-negative bacteria requires the insertion of β-barrel proteins into the outer membranes. Homologous Omp85 proteins are essential for membrane insertion of β-barrel precursors. It is unknown if precursors are threaded through the Omp85-channel interior and exit laterally or if they are translocated into the membrane at the Omp85-lipid interface. We have mapped the interaction of a precursor in transit with the mitochondrial Omp85-channel Sam50 in the native membrane environment. The precursor is translocated into the channel interior, interacts with an internal loop, and inserts into the lateral gate by β-signal exchange. Transport through the Omp85-channel interior followed by release through the lateral gate into the lipid phase may represent a basic mechanism for membrane insertion of β-barrel proteins.